Aquaculture Vol. 180 (1-2) pp. 147-165
The use of probiotics in aquaculture
Unité Mixte de Nutrition des Poissons INRA-IFREMER, IFREMER, Centre de Brest, BP 70, F-29280 Plouzané, , , France.
The research of probiotics for aquatic animals is increasing with the demand for environment-friendly aquaculture. The probiotics were defined as live microbial feed supplements that improve health of man and terrestrial livestock. The gastrointestinal microbiota of fish and shellfish are peculiarly dependent on the external environment, due to the water flow passing through the digestive tract. Most bacterial cells are transient in the gut, with continuous intrusion of microbes coming from water and food. Some commercial products are referred to as probiotics, though they were designed to treat the rearing medium, not to supplement the diet. This extension of the probiotic concept is pertinent when the administered microbes survive in the gastrointestinal tract. Otherwise, more general terms are suggested, like biocontrol when the treatment is antagonistic to pathogens, or bioremediation when water quality is improved. However, the first probiotics tested in fish were commercial preparations devised for land animals. Though some effects were observed with such preparations, the survival of these bacteria was uncertain in aquatic environment. Most attempts to propose probiotics have been undertaken by isolating and selecting strains from aquatic environment. These microbes were Vibrionaceae, pseudomonads, lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus spp. and yeasts. Three main characteristics have been searched in microbes as candidates to improve the health of their host. (1) The antagonism to pathogens was shown in vitro in most cases. (2) The colonization potential of some candidate probionts was also studied. (3) Challenge tests confirmed that some strains could increase the resistance to disease of their host. Many other beneficial effects may be expected from probiotics, e.g., competition with pathogens for nutrients or for adhesion sites, and stimulation of the immune system. The most promising prospects are sketched out, but considerable efforts of research will be necessary to develop the applications to aquaculture.