Make your own free website on


(From the thesis of Mr. V. N. Biju)



Abraham, T.J.  and Shanmugam, S.A., 1996. Bacteriological investigations in pond  reared  Penaeus indicus with multiple disease syndrome.  Cheiron,   25 (1/2): 9-17.


Abraham, T.J. and Shanmugam, S.A., 1998.  Drug sensitivity of  Vibrio alginolyticus  isolates of diseased  Penaeus monodon  broodstock.  Cheiron,  27 (1/2) : 22-27.


Abraham, T.J., Manley, R., Prince Jeyaseelan, M.J. and Sundararaj, V., 1996.  The role of  Vibrio spp., on the severity of white spot viral disease in cultured shrimps.  In : The Abstract of National seminar on sustainable shrimp  farming,  18-19 Dec. 1996.  Fisheries College and Research Institute,  TANUVAS, Tuticorin.


Adams, A., 1991.  Response of penaeid shrimp to exposure to Vibrio species.  Fish Shellfish Immunol., 1 (1): 59-70.


Adams, A., Auchinachie, N., Bundy A., Tatner,M.F. and Horne, M.T., 1988.  The potency of adjuvanted injected vaccines in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and bath vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against furunculosis.   Aquaculture,  69 : 15-26.


Agius, C., Horne,  M.T. and Ward, P.D., 1983.  Immunization of rainbow trout,  Salmo gairdneri Richardson, against vibriosis: Comparison of an extract antigen with whole cell bacterins by oral and intraperitoneal routes.  J. Fish Dis.,  6  : 129-134.


*  Aiken, D., 1990.  Shrimp farming in Ecuador, World Aquacult., 21: 48.


Alapide - Tendencia, E.V. and Dureza, L.A., 1997.  Isolation of  Vibrio  spp. from  Penaeus monodon  (Fabricius) with red  disease syndrome.  Aquaculture, 154 : 107-114.


Alfaro, J., Lawrence, A.L. and Lewis, D., 1993.  Interaction of bacteria and male reproductive system blackening disease of captive Penaeus  setiferus.  Aquaculture, 117 : 1-8.


Alsina, M . and Blanch, A.R., 1994a.  A set of keys for biochemical identification of environmental  Vibrio species.  J. Appl. Bacteriol., 76 : 79-85.


Alsina, M. and  Blanch, A.R., 1994b.  Improvement and update of a set of keys for biochemical identification of  Vibrio  species.  J. Appl.  Bacteriol.,  77: 719-721.


Amend, D.F., Johnson, K.A., Croy, T.R. and McCarthy, D.H., 1983.  Some factors affecting the potency of  Yersinia ruckeris  bacterins. J. Fish Dis.,  6  : 337 - 344.


Anderson, I.G. and Shariff, M., 1987.  Mortalities of juvenile shrimp,  Penaeus monodon, associated with  Penaeus monodon baculovirus, cytoplasmic reo-like virus and rickettsial and bacterial infections, from Malaysian brackishwater ponds.  Asian Fisheries Science,  1: 47-64.


Anderson, I.G., Shamsudin, M.N., Shariff, M. and Nash, G., 1988.  Bacterial septicemia in juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, cultured in Malaysian brackishwater ponds, Asian Fish. Sci., 2: 93.


Anonymous, 1993. Vaccination - A new strategy for shrimp culture. Fisheries World,  October, pp. 32-33.


APHA,  1975.  Standard methods for the  examination of water and wastewater.  American Public Health Association, Washington, DC., pp. 1149.


APHA, 1976.  Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods, M.L. Speck, (Ed.), American Public Health Association,          New York, pp. 70.


Ashida, M. and Soderhall, K., 1984.  The prophenoloxidase activating system in crayfish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 77B(1): 21 – 26.


Azad, I.S., Shankar, K.M. and Mohan, C.V., 1995.  Defence mechanism in shrimps and other crustaceans.  Fishing Chimes, August pp. 17- 18.


Bachere, E., Mialhe, E. and Rodriguez, J., 1995a.  Identification of defence effectors  in the haemolymph of crustaceans with particular reference to the shrimp  Penaeus japonicus (Bate): prospects and applications.  Fish Shellfish Immunol., 5: 597 – 612.


Bachere, E., Mialhe, E., Noel, D., Boulo, V., Morvan, A. and Rodriguez, J., 1995b. Knowledge and research prospects in marine mollusc and crustacean immunology.  Aquaculture, 132: 17 – 32.


Baticados, M.C.L., Lavilla - Pitogo, C.R., Cruz-Lacierda, E.R., de la Pena, L.D. and Sunaz, N.A., 1990.  Studies on the chemical control of luminous bacteria  Vibrio harveyi  and  V. splendidus isolated from diseased  Penaeus mondon larvae and rearing water. Dis. Aquat. Org., 9:133-139.


Baumann, P., Furniss, A.L. and Lee, J.V., 1984.  Genus 1.   Vibrio Pacini 1854, 411AL.  In : Krieg, N.R. and Holt, J.G. (Eds.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. I., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 518-538.


Bechteler, C. and Holler, D., 1995.  Preliminary studies of the immunization of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) against vibrio infections Berl.  Munch.  Tierarztl.  Wochenschr., 108(12): 462 – 465.


Bechteler, C. and Holler, D., 1996.  Vaccination against vibriosis in the prawn. Animal  Research and Development, 43/44 : 140-149.


*  Bell, K.L. and Smith, V.J., 1993.  In vitro superoxide production by hyaline cells of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.). Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 17: 211 – 219.


Bright Singh, I.S., Lakshmanaperumalsamy,  P.  and Chandramohan, D., 1998.  Bacterial flora of pond reared  Penaeus indicus  (Milne Edwards).  J.Aqua. Trop., 13(2) : 133-142.


*  Brock, J.A. and Lightner, D.V., 1990.  Diseases of crustacea.  Diseases caused by microorganisms.  In: Kinne, O. (Ed.), Diseases of Marine Animals, Vol. 3., John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 245.


Cerenius, L., Henttonen, P., Lindqvist, O.V. and Soderhall, K., 1991.  The crayfish pathogen Psorospermium haeckeli activates the prophenoloxidase activating system of freshwater crayfish in vitro.  Aquaculture, 99: 225 – 233.


Costa, R., Mermoud, I., Koblavi, S., Morlet, B., Haffner, P., Berthe, F.,  Legroumellec, M. and Grimont, P., 1998. Isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with a  Penaeus stylirostris  disease (Syndrome 93) in New Caledonia.  Aquaculture, 164 : 279-309.


de la Pena, L.D., Tamaki, T., Momoyama, K., Nakai, T. and Muroga, K., 1993.   Characteristics of the causative bacterium of vibriosis in the kuruma prawn,  Penaeus japonicus.  Aquaculture, 115: 1-12.


Dec, C., Angelidis, P. and Laurencin, F.B., 1990.  Effects of oral vaccination against vibriosis in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, and sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. J. Fish Dis., 13: 369 – 376.


Delves -  Broughton, J. and Poupard, C.W.,  1976. Disease problems of prawns in recirculating systems in the U.K. Aquaculture,   7  : 201-217.


Dempsey, A.C. and Kitting, C.L., 1987.  Characteristics of bacteria isolated from penaeid shrimp.  Crustaceana, 52(1) : 90-94.


* Duff, D.C.B., 1942.  The oral immunization of trout against Bacterium salmonicida. J. Immunol., 44: 87-94.


Eggset, G., Mortensen, A. and Loken, S., 1999.  Vaccination of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  before and during smoltification; effects on smoltification and immunological protection.  Aquaculture, 170:     101-112.


Ellis, A.E., 1988a.  General principles of fish vaccination.  In : Ellis, A.E. (Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 1-19.


Ellis, A.E., 1988b. Optimizing factors for fish vaccination.  In : Ellis, A.E., (Ed.), Fish Vaccination,  Academic Press, London,  pp. 32-46.


Ellis, A.E., 1988c.  Vaccination against enteric redmouth.  In : Ellis, A.E. (Ed.),  Fish Vaccination,  Academic Press, London,  pp. 85-92.


Fletcher, T.C.  and White,  A., 1973.  Antibody production in the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) after oral and parenteral immunization with  Vibrio  anguillarum antigens.  Aquaculture,  1 : 417-428.


Goarant, C., Regnier, F., Brizard, R. and Marteau,  A.L., 1998.  Acquisition of susceptibility  to  Vibrio penaeicida  in  Penaeus stylirostris postlarvae and juveniles.  Aquaculture, 169 : 121-132.


Gomez-Gil, B.,  Tron - Mayen,  L., Roque, A., Turnbull, J.F., Inglis, V. and Guerra-Flores, A.L., 1998.  Species of  Vibrio  isolated from hepatopancreas, haemolymph and digestive tract of a  population of healthy juvenile  Penaeus vannamei.  Aquaculture, 163 : 1-9.


Gutierrez, M.A.  and Miyazaki, T., 1994.  Responses of Japanese eels to oral challenge with  Edwardsiella tarda  after vaccination with formalin-killed cells or lipopolysaccharide of the bacterium. J. Aquat.  Anim. Health,   6: 110-117.


Hameed,  A.S., 1994.  Experimental transmission and histopathology of brown spot disease in shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and lobster (Panulirus homarus).  J. Aqua. Trop.,  9  : 311-322.


Hastings, T.S., 1988.  Furunculosis vaccines. In : Ellis, A.E. (Ed.), Fish Vaccination , Academic Press,  London, pp. 93-111.


He, J., Yin, Z., Xu, G., Gong, Z., Lam, T.J. and Sin, Y.M., 1997.  Protection of goldfish against   Ichthyophthirius  multifiliis by immunization with a recombinant vaccine.  Aquaculture, 158 : 1-10.


Holm, K.O. and Jorgensen, T ., 1987.  A successful vaccination of Atlantic salmon,  Salmo salar  L., against ‘Hitra disease’ or coldwater vibriosis.  J. Fish Dis., 10 : 85-90.


Horne,  M.T. and Ellis, A.E., 1988.  Strategies of fish vaccination .  In : Ellis, A.E. (Ed.)., Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 55-66.


Hose, J.E., Martin, G.G., Tiu, S. and Mckrell, N., 1992.  Patterns of haemocyte production and release througout the molt cycle in the penaeid shrimp  Sicyonia ingentis.  Biol. Bull. 183: 185 – 199.


Houghton, G., Matthews, R.A. and Harris, J.E ., 1988.  Vaccination against protozoan and helminth parasites of fish.  In : Ellis, A.E. (Ed.), Fish Vaccination,  Academic Press, London,  pp. 224-236.


* Huang, M.T.F., Eble, A.F. and Hammen, C.S., 1981.  Immune response of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, to bacterial infection.  J.Invertebr. Pathol., 38: 213 – 219.


Itami, T., Takahashi,  Y., Nakamura, T., Nishimura., M. and Kondo, M., 1989.  Efficacy of Vaccination for control of vibriosis in cultured kuruma prawns (Penaeus japonicus) J. Aquat.  Anim. Health,  1 : 238-242.


Itami,  T., Takahashi, Y., Yoneoka, K. and Yan, Y., 1991.  Survival of larval giant tiger  prawns,  Penaeus monodon after addition of killed  Vibrio  cells to a microencapsulated diet.  J. Aquat.  Anim.  Health,  3:151-152.


Itami, T., Yan Y. and  Takahashi, Y., 1992a. Studies on vaccination against vibriosis in cultured kuruma prawn,  Penaeus japonicus - 1.  Effect of vaccine concentration and  duration of vaccination efficacy J.Shimonoseki Univ.  Fish., 40(2) : 83-87.


Itami, T., Yan, Y. and Takahashi, Y., 1992b.  Studies on vaccination against vibriosis in cultured kuruma prawn,  Penaeus japonicus  - 2.  Effect of different vaccine preparations and oral vaccination efficacy.  J.Shimonoseki Univ.  Fish.,  40(3) : 139-144.


Itami, T., Takahashi, Y., Igusa, E.T.H and Kondo, M., 1994.  Enhancement of disease resistance of Kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus and increase in phagocytic activity of prawn haemocytes after oral administration of b-1,3 – glucan (Schizophyllan).  In: Chou, L.M., Munro, A.D., Lam, T.J., Chen, T.W., Cheong, L.K.K., Ding, J.K., Hooi, K.K., Khoo, H.W., Phang, V.P.E., Shim, K.F. and Tan, C.H. (Eds.), The Third Asian Fisheries Forum, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, pp. 375 – 378.


Jiravanichpaisal, P., Miyazaki, T. and Limsuwan, C., 1994.  Histopathology, biochemistry, and pathogenicity of  Vibrio harveyi infecting black tiger prawn,   Penaeus monodon.  J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 6 : 27-35.


Johnson, K.A. and Amend, D.F., 1983a.  Comparison of several delivery methods using  Yersinia ruckeri bacterin  on  rainbow trout,  Salmo gairdneri Richardson.  J. Fish Dis.,  6 : 331-336.

Johnson, K.A. and Amend, D.F., 1983b.  Efficacy of  Vibrio anguillarum  and  Yersinia  ruckeri bacterins  applied by oral and anal intubation of salmonids. J. Fish Dis., 6 : 473-476.


Karunasagar, I., Rosalind,  G. and Karunasagar, I., 1991. Immunological response of the Indian major carps to  Aeromonas hydrophila  vaccine.  J. Fish Dis., 14 : 413-417.


Karunasagar, I.,  Pai, R., Malathi, G.R. and Karunasagar, I., 1994. Mass mortality of   Penaeus monodon  larvae due to antibiotic - resistant   Vibrio harveyi infection.  Aquaculture, 128 : 203-209.


Karunasagar,  I., Otta,  S.K. and Karunasagar, I., 1996.  Applications of vibrio vaccine in shrimp culture.  Fishing Chimes, May, pp. 49 - 50.


Karunasagar,  I., Otta,  S.K. and Karunasagar, I., 1997.  Histopathological and bacteriological study of white spot  syndrome of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.  Aquaculture, 153: 9-13.


Kobayashi, M. and Soderhall, K., 1990.  Comparison of concanavalin A reactive determinants on isolated haemocytes of parasite-infected and non-infected freshwater crayfish.  Dis. Aquat. Org., 9: 141 – 47.


Krol, R.M., Hawkins, W.E., Vogelbein, W.K. and Overstreet, R.M., 1989.  Histopathology and ultrastructure of the hemocytic response to an acid – fast bacterial infection in cultured Penaeus vannamei. J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 1: 37 – 42.


Latchford, J.W., Prayitno, S.B. and Alabi, A., 1995.  The use of vaccines and immunostimulants in the culture of penaeid shrimps.  Larviculture and Artemia Newsletter, 37 : 60.


Lavilla - Pitogo, C.R., Baticados, M.C.L., Cruz-Lacierda,  E.R. and   de la Pena, L.D., 1990.  Occurrence of luminous bacterial disease of   Penaeus monodon larvae in the Philippines.  Aquaculture, 91:1-13.


Lavilla - Pitogo, C.R. and de la Pena, L.D., 1998.  Bacterial diseases in tiger shrimp culture in the  Philippines.   SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, Vol. XX(5) :6-33.


Lavilla - Pitogo, C.R. , Leano, E.M. and Paner, M.G., 1998.  Mortalities of pond-cultured juvenile shrimp,  Penaeus monodon,  associated with dominance  of luminescent   Vibrios in the  rearing environment.  Aquaculture, 164 : 337-349.


Lee, K.K., Chen, F.R. and Liu, P.C., 1995.  A haemocytolytic assay for tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.  Fish Shellfish Immunol., 5: 385 – 387.


Leung, K.L., Wong, L.S., Low, K.W. and Sin, Y.M., 1997.  Mini-Tn5 induced growth – and protease – deficient mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila as live vaccines for blue gourami,  Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas).  Aquaculture, 158: 11-22.


Lightner, D.V., 1988.  Disease of penaeid shrimp.  In: Sindermann, C.J. and Lightner, D.V. (Eds.), Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American Marine Aquaculture, 2nd edn., Elsevier, Amsterdam,           pp. 42-47.


Lightner, D.V., 1993.  Diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp. In : McVey, J.P. (Ed.),  Handbook of  Mariculture.  Vol. I., Crustacean Aquaculture.  CRC Press, Boca Raton,  FL, USA,  pp.  393-486.


Lillehaug, A., 1989a.  A survey of different procedures used for vaccinating salmonids against vibriosis in Norwegian fish-farming. Aquaculture, 83: 217-226.


Lillehaug, A., 1989b.  Oral immunization of rainbow trout,   Salmo gairdneri  Richardson,  against vibriosis with vaccines protected against digestive degradation.  J. Fish Dis., 12 :579-584.


Lillehaug, A., 1991.  Vaccination of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) against coldwater vibriosis-duration of protection and effect on growth rate.  Aquaculture, 92: 99-107.


Lillehaug, A., Lunder, T.  and Poppe, T.T., 1992.  Field testing of adjuvanted furunculosis vaccines in Atlantic salmon,  Salmo salar. J. Fish Dis., 15: 485-496.


Ling, K.H., Sin, Y.M. and Lam, T.J., 1993.  Protection of goldfish against some common ectoparasitic protozoans using  Ichthyophthirius multifiliis  and  Tetrahymena   pyriformis  for vaccination.  Aquaculture, 116:303-314.


Magarinos, B., Romalde, J.L., Santos, Y., Casal, J.F., Barja, J.L. and Toranzo, A.E., 1994.  Vaccination trials on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) against  Pasteurella piscicida.  Aquaculture, 120 : 201-208.


Manley, R., 1994.  Incidence of diseases in shrimp culture systems, M.F.Sc., Thesis, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, pp. 75.


McCarthy, D.H., Amend, D.F., Johnson, K.A.  and Bloom, J.V., 1983.   Aeromonas salmonicida: determination of an antigen associated with protective immunity and evaluation of an experimental bacterin.  J.Fish Dis., 6 : 155-174.


Moore, A.A., Eimers, M.E. and Cardella, M.A., 1990.  Attempts to control  Flexibacter columnaris epizootics in pond-reared channel catfish by vaccination.  J. Aquat. Anim.  Health,   2 : 109-111.


Moullac, G.L., Groumellec, M.L., Ansquer, D., Froissard, S., Levy, P. and Aquacop, 1997.  Haematological and phenoloxidase activity changes in the shrimp Penaeus stylirostris in relation with the moult cycle: protection against vibriosis.  Fish Shellfish Immunol., 7: 227 – 234.


Munro, A.L.S.  and Bruno, D.W., 1988.  Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease.  In : Ellis,  A.E. (Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London,  pp. 124-134.


Nash, G.L., 1992.  Penaeus monodon  grow-out diseases.  In : New, M.B., Saram, H.D. and Singh T. (Eds.),  Technical and  Economic Aspects of shrimp farming, Proceedings of the Aquatech ‘90 Conference, Kulalampur, Malaysia.  11-14 June, 1990, pp . 172-190.


Newman, S.G., 1993.  Immunisation  of fish and crustaceans.   INFOFISH International,  3/93 : 39-44.


Otta, S.K., Karunasagar, I., Tauro,  P. and Karunasagar, I., 1998. Microbial diseases of shrimp.  Indian J. Microbiol., 138 : 113-125.


Palm, R.C., Landolt, M.L. and Busch, R.A., 1994.  Specific humoral response of rainbow trout to injection, immersion and oral immunization against Vibrio anguillarum.  In: Davis, C.A. (Ed.), International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health: Program and Abstracts, Univ. of California,  School of Veterinary Medicine, 1994.  pp. 24.4.


Paterson, W.D., Desautels, D. and Weber, J.M., 1981.  The immune response of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., to the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease,  Renibacterium salmoninarum.   J.Fish Dis., 4 :99-11.


Pereira, J.J., 1996.  Development of killed vaccine against  vibriosis for cultured shrimps.  M.F.Sc., Thesis, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. pp. 65.


Plumb,  J.A., 1988.  Vaccination against  Edwardsiella ictaluri  . In : Ellis,  A.E., (Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 152-161.


Pradeep Kumar, P., 1996.  The effect of feeding selected immunomodulators on the growth and immune response in penaeid shrimp juveniles.  M.F.Sc., Thesis, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. pp. 69.


Prayitno, S.B. and Latchford, J.W., 1995.  Experimental infections of crustaceans with luminous bacteria related to  Photobacterium and  Vibrio.  Effect of salinity and pH on infectionsity.  Aquaculture, 132 : 105-112.


Quentel, C. and Ogier de  Baulny, M., 1995.  Vaccination of juvenile turbot,  Scophthalmus maximus  against  vibriosis.  Aquaculture,  132:      125-131.


Ravi, K., Jayabalan, N., Abokare, K. and Anil, T.M., 1998.  Source dependent virulence of  Vibrio harveyi against cultivable shrimps.  Current Science, 74(4) : 286-287.


*  Reed, L.J. and Muench, H., 1938.  A simple method for estimating 50% end points.  Am. J. Hygiene, 27: 493 – 497.


Robertson, P.A.W., Calderon, J., Carrera, L., Stark, J.R., Zherdmant, M. and Austin, B., 1998.  Experimental  Vibrio harveyi  infections in  Penaeus vannamei larvae.  Dis. Aquat. Org., 32 : 151-155.


Roque, A.,  Turnbull, T.F., Escalante, G., Gomez - Gil,  B. and Alday- Sanz, M.V., 1998.  Development of a bath challenge for the marine shrimp  Penaeus vannamei  Boone, 1931. Aquaculture, 169 : 283-290.


Rosenberry, B., 1997.  Drop in  shrimp production.  INFOFISH International, 3/97: 49-50.


Rosenberry, B., 1998.  Shrimp hits new high.  Fish Farming International,  25(12): 1.


Rosenberry, B., 1999.  Farmed shrimp up by 12 percent.  Fish Farmer, Jan. / Feb., 1999: 40 – 41.


Ruangpan, L. and Kitao, T., 1991.   Vibrio bacteria isolated from black tiger shrimp,  Penaeus monodon  Fabricius.  J. Fish  Dis., 14 : 383-388.


Saitanu, K., Amornsin, A., Kondo, F. and Tsai, C., 1994.  Antibiotic residues in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  Asian Fisheries Science,  7:47-52.


Sakai, M.,  Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M., 1993.  The immune  response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected with  five  Renibacterium salmoninarum  bacterins.  Aquaculture, 113: 11-18.


Sakai, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M., 1995.  Efficacies of combined vaccine for Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus sp. Fish. Sci., 61(2):         359-360.


Salati,  F., 1988.  Vaccination against  Edwardsiella tarda.  In : Ellis,   A.E., (Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 135-151.


Santos, Y., Bandin,  I., Nunez, S., Gravningen, K. and Toranzo, A.E., 1991. Protection of turbot,  Scophthalmus maximus (L.), and rainbow trout,  Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson), against vibriosis using two different vaccines. J. Fish  Dis., 14 : 407-411.


Schroder, M.B., Espelid, S. and Joergensen, T.O., 1992.  Two serotypes of Vibrio salmonicida isolated from diseased cod (Gadus morhua); virulence, immunological studies and vaccination experiments.  Fish Shellfish Immunol., 2(3): 211 – 221.


Sindermann, C.J. (Ed.), 1990a.  Vibriosis. In: Prinicpal Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish, Vol. 2, 2nd edn., Academic Press, New York, pp.      57-58.


Sindermann, C.J., (Ed.), 1990b.  Mechanisms of internal defense in crustaceans.  In: Principal Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish, Vol. 2, 2nd edn., Academic Press, New York, pp. 267 – 291.


Smith, P.D., 1988. Vaccination against vibriosis.  In : Ellis, A.E.(Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 67-84.


Smith, V.J. and  Chisholm, J.R.S. 1992.  Non-cellular immunity in crustaceans.  Fish  Shellfish Immunol.,  2 : 1-31.


Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G., 1980.  Statistical Methods.  7th edn.  IOWA, State University Press, IOWA, pp. 507.


Soderhall, K. and Cerenius,  L., 1992.  Crustacean Immunity.  Annu. Rev.  Fish Dis., 2 : 3-23.


*  Song, Y.L. and Sung, H.H., 1990.  Enhancement of growth in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by bacteria prepared from Vibrio vulnificus. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Pathol., 10: 98-99.


Song, Y.L. and Hsieh, Y.T., 1994.  Immunostimulation of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) haemocytes for generation of microbicidal substances:  Analysis of reactive oxygen species.  Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 18(3): 201 – 209.


Srinivasan, M. and Rajasagar, M., 1998.  A peculiar recovery from virus disease in shrimp culture.  Fisheries World, October, pp. 15-17.


Srisomboon,  P. and Poomchatra, A., 1995.  Antibiotic residues in farmed shrimp and  consumer health.   INFOFISH International, 4/95 : 48-52.


Stevenson, R.M.W., 1988.  Vaccination against  Aeromonas hydrophila.  In: Ellis, A.E. (Ed.), Fish Vaccination, Academic Press, London, pp. 112-123.


*  Sunaryanto, A. and Mariam, A., 1986.  Occurrence of a pathogenic infection of larvae in Indonesian hatcheries.  Bull. Brackishwat. Aquacult. Dev. Cent. Jepara, 8(2): 64-70.


Sung, H.H. and Song, Y.L ., 1996.  Tissue location of  Vibrio  antigen delivered by immersion to tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Aquaculture, 145 : 41-54.


*  Takahashi, Y., Shimoyama, Y. and Momoyama, K., 1985.  Pathogenicity and characteristics of Vibrio sp. isolated from cultured kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus  Bate. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish.,  51: 721-730.


Teunissen, O.S.P., Faber, R., Booms, G.H.R., Latscha, T. and Boon, J.H. 1998. Influence of vaccination on vibriosis resistance of the giant black tiger shrimp,  Penaeus monodon  Fabricius.  Aquaculture, 164 : 359-366.



Uma, A., 1995.  Influence of probionts on the growth and survival of penaeid shrimps in nursery phase.  M.F.Sc., Thesis.  Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. pp. 74.


Vargas – Albores, F., 1995.  The defense system of brown shrimp (Penaeus californiensis): Humoral recognition and cellular responses.  J. Mar. Biotechnol., 3: 155 – 158.


Vargas – Albores, F., Vega, F.J. and Soderhall, K., 1996.  A plasma protein isolated from brown shrimp (Penaeus californiensis) which  enhances the activation of prophenoloxidase system by b-1,3 – glucan.  Developmental and Comparative Immunology,  20(5): 299 – 306.


Vera, P., Navas, J.I. and Quintero, M.C., 1992.  Experimental study of the virulence of three species of   Vibrio bacteria in  Penaeus japonicus (Bate 1881) juveniles.  Aquaculture, 107 : 119-123.